Human Identification using Dental Biometrics

S.Jeyanthi

Dept of CSE

PSNA CET

INDIA

Dr.N.Uma Maheswari

Dept of CSE

PSNA CET

INDIA

Dr.R.Venkatesh

Dept of CSE

PSNA CET

INDIA

Abstract-

Dental records have been extensively used in identifying the victims of massive disasters, such as the 9/11 bombing and the Asian tsunami. Dental Biometrics uses dental radiographs to identify victims in situations (e.g., fire victims) where conventional biometric features i.e., face, fingerprint and iris, are not available. The radiographs acquired after the victim’s death are called post-mortem radiographs and the radiographs acquired while the victim is alive are called ante mortem radiographs. The goal of dental biometrics is to match an unidentified individual’s post-mortem radiographs against a database of labelled ante mortem radiographs. If the teeth in the post-mortem radiographs sufficiently match the teeth in someone’s ante mortem radiographs, the identity of the post-mortem radiographs is established. Dental biometrics utilizes dental radiographs for human identification and recognition. The dental radiographs provide information about teeth, including tooth contours, relative positions of neighbouring teeth and shapes of the dental work. The proposed system has feature extraction and matching of dental images. Feature extraction uses anisotropic diffusion to enhance the dental images and a mixture of Gaussians model to segment each tooth.  After the enhancement, dental images are matched. The matching has three sequential steps like tooth-level matching, computation of image distances, and subject identification. Radiographs not only give us the information about the shape of the teeth, but also other information such as the artificial prosthesis of the teeth. This project will involve utilizing this information to improve the reliability of person identification and recognition with their dental images.

KeywordsAnte-mortem, Authentication, Post-mortem, Radiographs, Matching.

  1. Introduction

Determining identity of an individual is becoming very important now days. Biometrics or biometric authentication refers to the identification of humans by their characteristics or traits. Biometrics is used in computer science as a form of identification and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance. Biometric identifiers are the distinctive, measurable characteristics used to label and describe individuals. The biometric systems are divided into two categories as: behavioral biometrics and physiological biometrics. Dental biometrics [1] uses information about dental structures to automatically identify human remains. The methodology is mainly applied to the identification of victims of massive disasters. The process of dental identification consists in measuring dental features, labeling individual teeth with tooth indices and the matching of dental features. Dental radiographs [1], [2] are the major source for obtaining dental features. Commonly used dental features are based on tooth morphology (shape) and appearance (gray level). Dental biometrics utilizes dental radiographs for human identification. The dental radiographs provide information about teeth, including tooth contours, relative positions of neighboring teeth, and shapes of the dental work (e.g., crowns, fillings, and bridges). Dental biometrics requires ante mortem (AM) [1] and postmortem (PM) radiographs for finding unidentified subject. Automated Dental Identification System (ADIS) [13] have four stages: preprocessing, segmentation of radiographs, contour extraction or dental work extraction and matching. Three types of radiograph images [11] are used in dental biometrics. They are

  1. A.    Bitewing Radiograph

This is one of the radiographs as shown in fig.1 used in dental biometrics which can be used for revealing the cavities in teeth. It is taken at routine checkups

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Volume -01, Issue -05 , December 2013.

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